Cộng hòa Xã hội Chủ nghĩa Việt Nam
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Flag of Vietnam Coat of arms of Vietnam
Flag Coat of arms
Độc lập - Tự do - Hạnh phúc
"Independence - Freedom - Happiness"
Tiến Quân Ca
Location of Vietnam
Largest city Ho Chi Minh City
Official languages Vietnamese
Government Socialist republic1
- General Secretary Nông Đức Mạnh
- President Nguyễn Minh Triết
- Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng
- from China 938
- from France September 2, 1945
- Recognized 1954
- Total 331,689 km² (65th)
128,065 sq mi
- Water (%) 1.3
- July 2005 estimate 85,238,000 (13th)
- 1999 census 76,323,173
- Density 253 /km² (46th)
655 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
- Total $251.8 billion (36th)
- Per capita $3,025 (123rd)
Gini? (2002) 37 (medium)
HDI (2004) 0.709 (medium) (109th)
Currency đồng (₫) (VND)
Internet TLD .vn
Calling code +84
1 According to the official name and 1992 Constitution.
Vietnam (Vietnamese: Viﾇt Nam), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost nation on the Indochina Peninsula. It borders China to the north, Laos to the northwest, and Cambodia to the southwest. On the country's east coast lies the South China Sea. With a population of over 85 million, Vietnam is the 13th most populous country in the world. The country is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies; according to government figures GDP growth was 8.17% in 2006, the second fastest growth rate among countries in East Asia and the fastest in Southeast Asia.
* 1 History
o 1.1 Pre-Dynastic era
o 1.2 Dynastic era
o 1.3 French colonialism
o 1.4 Vietnam War
o 1.5 Postwar
o 1.6 ﾕi Mﾛi
* 2 Government and politics
* 3 Administrative divisions
* 4 Geography and climate
* 5 Economy
* 6 Transportation
* 7 Demographics
o 7.1 Population
o 7.2 Languages
o 7.3 Religions
o 7.4 Education
* 8 Culture
o 8.1 Media
o 8.2 Tourism
* 9 International rankings
* 10 See also
* 11 References and bibliography
* 12 External links
o 12.1 Government
o 12.2 Media
+ 12.2.1 State-run
+ 12.2.2 Non state-run
o 12.3 Overviews
Main article: History of Vietnam
According to Vietnamese legends, people of various tribes were born outside the womb following the marriage of L｡c Long Quan (Dragon Chief) and Au C｡ (Fairy Goddess). However, most Vietnamese historians consider the Dong Son civilization that covered much of Southeast Asia to be the beginning of Vietnam's history. In 208 BCE a Qin Dynasty general named Triﾇu a established a state called Nam Viﾇt which encompassed southern China and the Red River Delta. The historical significance of the original Nam Viﾇt remains controversial because some historians consider it a Chinese occupation while others believe it was an independent era. For most of the period from 111 BCE to the early 10th century CE, Vietnam was under the rule of successive Chinese dynasties. Sporadic independence movements were attempted, but were quickly suppressed by Chinese forces.
In 939 CE a Vietnamese lord named Ngo Quyﾁn defeated Chinese forces at the B｡ch ｱng River and gained independence after 10 centuries under Chinese control. Renamed as ｡i Viﾇt, the nation went through a golden era during the Ly and Trｧn Dynasties. During the rule of the Trｧn Dynasty, ｡i Viﾇt repelled three Mongol invasions of Vietnam. Following the brief Hﾓ Dynasty, Vietnamese independence was briefly interrupted by the Chinese Ming Dynasty, but was restored by Le L・i, the founder of the Le Dynasty. Feudalism in Vietnam reached its zenith in the Le Dynasty of the 15th century, especially during the reign of Emperor Le Thanh Tong. Between the 11th and 18th centuries, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiｿn (southward expansion). They eventually conquered the kingdom of Champa and part of the Khmer Empire.
Towards the end of the Le Dynasty, civil strife engulfed much of Vietnam. First, the Chinese-supported M｡c Dynasty challenged the Le Dynasty's power. After the M｡c Dynasty was defeated, the Le Dynasty was reinstalled, but with no actual power. Power was divided between the Trﾋnh Lords in the North and the Nguyﾅn Lords in the South, who engaged in a civil war for more than a hundred years. The civil war ended when the Tay S｡n brothers defeated both and established their new dynasty. However, their rule did not last long and they were defeated by the remnants of the Nguyﾅn Lords with the help of the French, who established the Nguyﾅn Dynasty.
Battle of Bach Dang river. Silk painting by Nng Hiﾃn.
Battle of Bach Dang river. Silk painting by Nng Hiﾃn.
Vietnam's independence ended in the mid-19th century, when the country was colonized by the French Empire. The French administration imposed significant political and cultural changes on Vietnamese society. A Western-style system of modern education was developed, and Christianity was introduced into Vietnamese society. Developing a plantation economy to promote the exports of tobacco, indigo, tea and coffee, the French largely ignored increasing calls for self-government and civil rights. A nationalist political movement soon emerged, with leaders such as Phan Boi Chau, Phan Chu Trinh, Emperor Ham Nghi and Ho Chi Minh calling for independence. However, the French maintained dominant control of their colonies until World War II, when the Japanese war in the Pacific triggered the invasion of Indochina. The natural resources of Vietnam were exploited for the purposes of Japan's military campaigns into Burma, the Malay Peninsula and India.
Main article: First Indochina War
In the final years of the war, a forceful nationalist insurgency emerged under Ho Chi Minh, committed to independence and communism. Following the defeat of Japan, nationalist forces fought French colonial forces in the First Indochina War that lasted from 1945 to 1954. The French suffered a major defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and shortly afterwards withdrew from the country. The countries that fought the Vietnam War divided the country at the 17th parallel into North Vietnam and South Vietnam during the Geneva Accords.
Main article: Vietnam War
The communist-held North Vietnam was opposed by the United States for its close association with the Soviet Union and China. Disagreements soon emerged over the organizing of elections and reunification, and the U.S. began increasing its contribution of military advisors even as Soviet-supplied arms and munitions strengthened communist forces. The Gulf of Tonkin Incident, which was actually two separate incidents, (one confirmed, one not) in 1964 on U.S. ships in the Gulf of Tonkin triggered a U.S. military assault on North Vietnamese military installations and the deployment of more than 500,000 troops into South Vietnam. U.S. forces were soon embroiled in a vicious guerrilla war with the Viet Cong, the South Vietnamese communist insurgent militia. North Vietnamese forces unsuccessfully attempted to overrun the South during the 1968 Tet Offensive and the war soon spread into neighboring Laos and Cambodia. With casualties mounting, the U.S. began transferring combat roles to the South Vietnamese military in a process known as Vietnamization. The effort had mixed results. The Paris Peace Accords on January 27, 1973 formally recognized the sovereignty of both sides. Under the terms of the accords all American combat troops were withdrawn by March 29, 1973. Limited fighting continued, but all major fighting ended until the North once again invaded in strength and overpowered the South on April 30, 1975. South Vietnam briefly became the Republic of South Vietnam, a puppet state under military occupation by North Vietnam, before being officially reunified with the North under communist rule as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on July 2, 1976.
Upon taking control, the Vietnamese communists banned other political parties, arrested people believed to have collaborated with the U.S. and sent them to reeducation camps. The government also embarked on a mass campaign of collectivization of farms and factories. Reconstruction of the war-ravaged country was slow and serious humanitarian and economic problems confronted the communist regime. Millions of people fled the country in crudely-built boats, creating an international humanitarian crisis. In 1978, the Vietnamese Army invaded Cambodia to remove the Khmer Rouge from power. This action worsened relations with China, which launched a brief incursion into northern Vietnam in 1979. This conflict caused Vietnam to rely even more heavily on Soviet economic and military aid.
In a historic shift in 1986, the Communist Party of Vietnam implemented free-market reforms known as ﾕi Mﾛi (Renovation). With the authority of the state remaining unchallenged, private ownership of farms and companies, deregulation and foreign investment were encouraged. The economy of Vietnam has achieved rapid growth in agricultural and industrial production, construction and housing, exports, and foreign investment. It is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world. However, this growth does little for the development of the country, and Vietnam still ranks as one of the poorest nations in the world. This is due primarily to the fact that much of the money gained from the growth does not trickle down to the people. Politically, reforms have not occurred. The Communist Party of Vietnam retains control over all organs of government.
Government and politics
Main article: Politics of Vietnam
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a single-party state. A new state constitution was approved in April 1992, replacing the 1975 version. The central role of the Communist Party was reasserted in all organs of government, politics and society. Only political organizations affiliated with or endorsed by the Communist Party are permitted to contest elections. These include the Vietnamese Fatherland Front, workers and trade unionist parties. Although the state remains officially committed to socialism as its defining creed, the ideology's importance has substantially diminished since the 1990s. The President of Vietnam is the titular head of state and the nominal commander in chief of the military of Vietnam, chairing the Council on National Defense and Security. The Prime Minister of Vietnam is the head of government, presiding over a council of ministers composed of 3 deputy prime ministers and the heads of 26 ministries and commissions.
The National Assembly of Vietnam is the unicameral legislature of the government, composed of 498 members. It is superior to both the executive and judicial branches. All members of the council of ministers are derived from the National Assembly. The Supreme People's Court of Vietnam, which is the highest court of appeal in the nation, is also answerable to the National Assembly. Beneath the Supreme People's Court stand the provincial municipal courts and the local courts. Military courts are also a powerful branch of the judiciary with special jurisdiction in matters of national security. All organs of Vietnam's government are largely controlled by the Communist Party. Most government appointees are members of the party. The General Secretary of the Communist Party is perhaps one of the most important political leaders in the nation, controlling the party's national organization and state appointments, as well as setting policy.
The Vietnam People's Army is the official name for the three military services of Vietnam, which is organized on the lines of China's People's Liberation Army. The VPA is further subdivided into the Vietnamese People's Ground Forces (including Strategic Rear Forces and Border Defense Forces), the Vietnam People's Navy, the Vietnam People's Air Force and the coast guard. Through Vietnam's recent history, the VPA has actively been involved in Vietnam's workforce to develop the economy of Vietnam, in order to coordinate national defense and the economy. The VPA is involved in such areas as industry, agriculture, forestry, fishery and telecommunications. The total strength of the VPA is close to 500,000 soldiers. The government also organizes and maintains provincial militias and police forces. The role of the military in public life has steadily weakened since the 1980s.
Main article: Provinces of Vietnam
The capital of Vietnam is Hanoi (it had served as the capital of French Indochina and North Vietnam), and the largest and most populous city is Ho Chi Minh City (formerly known as Saigon). Vietnam is subdivided into 59 provinces and 5 province-level cities, which are further subdivided into districts and municipalities. Provincial governments are expected to be subordinate to the central government. Often, the Vietnamese government groups the various provinces into eight regions: Northwest, Northeast, Red River Delta, North Central Coast, South Central Coast, Central Highland, Southeast, Mekong River Delta.
Geography and climate
Map of Vietnam
Map of Vietnam
Main article: Geography of Vietnam
Vietnam extends approximately 331,688 square km (128,066 sq mi) in area. The area of the country running along its international boundaries is 4,639 km (2,883 mi). The topography consists of hills and densely forested mountains, with level land covering no more than 20%. Mountains account for 40% of the area, with smaller hills accounting for 40% and tropical forests 42%. The northern part of the country consists mostly of highlands and the Red River Delta. Phan Xi Png, located in Lao Cai province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam at 3,143 m (10,312 ft). The south is divided into coastal lowlands, Annamite Chain peaks, extensive forests, and poor soil. Comprising five relatively flat plateaus of basalt soil, the highlands account for 16% of the country's arable land and 22% of its total forested land.
Ha Long Bay, a World Heritage Site
Ha Long Bay, a World Heritage Site
The delta of the Red River (also known as the Song Hﾓng), a flat, triangular region of 3,000 square kilometers, is smaller but more intensely developed and more densely populated than the Mekong River Delta. Once an inlet of the Gulf of Tonkin, it has been filled in by the enormous alluvial deposits of the rivers over a period of millennia, and it advances one hundred meters into the Gulf annually. The Mekong delta, covering about 40,000 square kilometers, is a low-level plain not more than three meters above sea level at any point and criss-crossed by a maze of canals and rivers. So much sediment is carried by the Mekong's various branches and tributaries that the delta advances sixty to eighty meters into the sea every year.
Vietnam has a tropical monsoon climate, with humidity averaging 84 % throughout the year. However, because of differences in latitude and the marked variety of topographical relief, the climate tends to vary considerably from place to place. During the winter or dry season, extending roughly from November to April, the monsoon winds usually blow from the northeast along the China coast and across the Gulf of Tonkin, picking up considerable moisture; consequently the winter season in most parts of the country is dry only by comparison with the rainy or summer season. The average annual temperature is generally higher in the plains than in the mountains and plateaus.
Main article: Economy of Vietnam
The Vietnam War destroyed much of the economy of Vietnam. Upon taking power, the Government created a command economy in the nation. Collectivization of farms, factories and economic capital was implemented, and millions of people were put to work in government programs. For many decades, Vietnam's economy was plagued with inefficiency and corruption in state programs, poor quality and underproduction and restrictions on economic activities and trade. It also suffered from the trade embargo from the United States and most of Europe after the Vietnam War. Subsequently, the trade partners of the Communist blocs began to erode. In 1986, the Sixth Party Congress introduced significant economic reforms with market economy elements as part of a broad economic reform package called "ﾕi mﾛi" (Renovation). Private ownership was encouraged in industries, commerce and agriculture. Vietnam achieved around 8% annual GDP growth from 1990 to 1997 and continued at around 7% from 2000 to 2005, making it the world's second-fastest growing economy. Simultaneously, foreign investment grew threefold and domestic savings quintupled. Manufacturing, information technology and high-tech industries form a large and fast-growing part of the national economy.
Workshop in Hoi An, 2001.
Workshop in Hoi An, 2001.
Vietnam is still a relatively poor country with GDP of US$280.2 billion (est., 2006, source: Economist Intelligence unit). This translates to ~US$3,300 per capita. Inflation rate was estimated at 7.5% per year in 2006. The spending power of the public has noticeably increased. Deep poverty, defined as a percent of the population living under $1 per day, has declined significantly and is now smaller than that of China, India, and the Philippines. As a result of several land reform measures, Vietnam is now the largest producer of cashew nuts with a one-third global share and second-largest rice exporter in the world. Vietnam has the highest percent of land use for permanent crops, 6.93%, of any nation in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Besides rice, key exports are coffee, tea, rubber, and fishery products. However, agriculture's share of economic output has declined, falling as a share of GDP from 42% in 1989 to 20% in 2006, as production in other sectors of the economy has risen. Urban unemployment has been rising steadily in recent years due to high numbers of migration from the countryside to the cities, while rural unemployment is already at critical levels. Among other steps taken in the process of transitioning to a market economy, Vietnam in July 2006 updated its intellectual property legislation to comply with TRIPS. Vietnam was accepted into the WTO on November 7, 2006. Vietnam's chief trading partners include Japan, Australia, ASEAN countries, the U.S. and Western European countries.
Hai Van Pass.
Hai Van Pass.
Main article: Transportation in Vietnam
The modern transport network of Vietnam was originally developed under French rule for the purpose of raw materials harvesting, and reconstructed and extensively modernized following the Vietnam War. The railways are the most popular form of transportation in the country. Vietnam’s road system includes national roads administered by the central level; provincial roads managed by the provincial level; district roads managed by the district level; urban roads managed by cities and towns; and commune roads managed by the commune level.
Bicycles, motorcycles, and public bus services remain the most popular forms of road transport in Vietnam's cities, towns, and villages. Traffic congestion is a serious problem in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City as the city's roads struggle to cope with the booming numbers of automobiles. There are also more than 17,000 kilometers of navigable waterways, which play a significant role in rural life owing to the extensive network of rivers in Vietnam.
The nation has seven developed ports and harbors at Cam Ranh, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Gai, Qui Nhon, and Nha Trang.
Main article: Demographics of Vietnam
Main article: Ethnic groups in Vietnam
Recent census estimates the population of Vietnam beyond 84 million. Vietnamese people, also called "Viet" or "Kinh", account for 86.2 percent of the population. Their population is concentrated in the alluvial deltas and coastal plains of the country. A homogeneous social and ethnic majority group, the Kinh exert political and economic control. There are however more than 54 ethnic minorities throughout the country, but the Kinh are purveyors of the dominant culture. By contrast, most ethnic minorities such as the Muong, a closely related ethnic of the Kinh, are found mostly in the highlands that cover two-thirds of the national territory . The Hoa (ethnic Chinese) and Khmer Krom are mainly lowlanders. The largest ethnic minority groups include the Hmong, Dao, Tay, Thai, Nung and many more.
Main article: Vietnamese language
According to official figures, 86.2% of the population speak Vietnamese as a native language. In its early history, Vietnamese writing used Chinese characters. In the 13th century, the Vietnamese developed their own set of characters called Ch・ nom. The celebrated epic o｡n trｰﾝng tan thanh (Truyﾇn Kiﾁu or The Tale of Kieu) by Nguyﾅn Du was written in Ch・ nom. During the French colonial period, Quﾑc ng・, the romanised Vietnamese alphabet representation of spoken Vietnamese which was developed collectively by several Portuguese missionaries, became popular and brought literacy to the masses.
Various other languages are spoken by the several minority groups in Vietnam. The most spoken of these languages are: Tay, Mｰﾝng, Khmer, Chinese, Nung, H'Mong. The French language, a legacy of colonial rule, is still spoken by some older Vietnamese as a second language but is losing its popularity. Russian and to a much lesser extent Czech or Polish is sometimes known among those whose families had ties with the Soviet bloc. In recent years, Chinese, Japanese and English have become the most popular foreign languages, with English study being obligatory in most schools.
For much of Vietnamese history, Mahayana Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism have strongly influenced the religious and cultural life of the people. According to the 1999 census, 80.8% of Vietnamese subscribe to no religion. However, some believe that these figures may be suspect or misleading due to several factors concerning who the government considers to be followers of a particular religion, and that in fact the 80.8% figure for atheists actually refer to followers of the so-called triple-religion (Mahayana Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism). Christianity was introduced by French colonists, and to a lesser extent during the presence of American forces. There is a substantial following of Roman Catholicism and Protestantism amongst the Cao ai, and Hoa Hao communities. The largest Protestant churches are the Evangelical Church of Vietnam and the Montagnard Evangelical Church.
Vietnam has a high level of persecution of Christians. Membership of Sunni and Bashi Islam is usually accredited to the ethnic Cham minority, but there are also a few ethnic Vietnamese adherents of Islam in the southwest. Vietnamese government has been criticized for its religious violations. However, due to recent improvements in liberty of religion the United States government no longer considers Vietnam a Country of Particular Concern.
Practically all Vietnamese people, regardless of their religious background (including Catholic or Buddhist), practice Ancestor Worship, although this may not be considered strictly as a religion.
Main article: Education in Vietnam
Vietnam has an extensive state-controlled network of schools, colleges and universities. General education in Vietnam is imparted in 5 categories: pre-primary (Kindergarten), primary schools, intermediate schools, secondary schools, and colleges. Courses are taught mainly in Vietnamese. A large number of public schools have been organized across cities, towns and villages with the purpose of raising the national literacy rate. There are a large number of specialist colleges, established to develop a diverse and skilled national workforce. A large number of Vietnam's most acclaimed universities are based in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Facing serious crises, Vietnam's education system is under a holistic reform launched by the government.
The Vn Miｿu (Temple of Literature).
The Vn Miｿu (Temple of Literature).
Over thousands of years, the culture of Vietnam has been strongly influenced by neighboring China. Due to Vietnam's long association with China, Vietnamese culture remains strongly Confucian with its emphasis on filial duty. Education is highly valued. Historically, passing the imperial Mandarin exams was the only means for Vietnamese people to socially advance themselves.
In the socialist era, the cultural life of Vietnam has been deeply influenced by government-controlled media and the cultural influences of socialist programs. For many decades, foreign cultural influences were shunned and emphasis placed on appreciating and sharing the culture of communist nations such as the Soviet Union, China, Cuba and others. Since the 1990s, Vietnam has seen a greater exposure to Southeast Asian, European and American culture and media.
The Hanoi Opera House.
The Hanoi Opera House.
One of the most popular Vietnamese traditional costumes is the "Ao Dai", worn often for special occasions such as weddings or festivals. White Ao dai is the required uniform for girls in many high schools across Vietnam. Ao Dai was once worn by both genders but today it is worn mainly by females, except for certain important traditional culture-related occasions where some men do wear it.
Vietnamese cuisine uses very little oil and many vegetables. The main dishes are often based on rice, soy sauce, and fish sauce. Its characteristic flavors are sweet (sugar), spicy (serrano peppers), sour (lime), umami (fish sauce), and flavored by a variety of mint and basil.
Vietnamese music is slightly different according to three regions: Bｯc or North, Trung or Central, and Nam or South. Northern classical music is Vietnam's oldest and is traditionally more formal. Vietnamese classical music can be traced to the Mongol invasions, when the Vietnamese captured a Chinese opera troupe. Central classical music shows the influences of Champa culture with its melancholic melodies. Southern music exudes a lively laissez-faire attitude.
Vietnamese art has a long and rich history, spanning thousands of years from the country's prehistory to contemporary art.
Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Vietnam. Sports and games such as badminton, tennis, ping pong, and chess are also popular with large segments of the population. Volleyball, especially women volleyball, is watched by a fairly large number of Vietnamese. The (expatriate Vietnamese) community forms a prominent part of Vietnamese cultural life, introducing Western sports, films, music and other cultural activities in the nation.
Vietnam is home to a small film industry, but the works from its counterparts in South Korea, Hong Kong, France, the U.S. enjoy greater popularity and circulation.
Among countless other traditional Vietnamese occasions, the traditional Vietnamese wedding is one of the most important. Regardless of westernization, many of the age-old customs in a Vietnamese wedding continue to be celebrated by both Vietnamese in Vietnam and overseas, often combining both western and eastern elements.
The Voice of Vietnam is the official state-run radio broadcasting services that cover the nation. Vietnam Television is the national television broadcasting company. As Vietnam moved toward a free-market economy with its doi moi measures, the government has relied on the print media to keep the public informed about its policies. The measure has had the effect of almost doubling the numbers of newspapers and magazines since 1996. Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system, but its performance continues to lag behind that of its more modern neighbors.
Vietnam's number of visitors for tourism and vacation has increased steadily over the past ten years. About 3.56 million international guests visited Vietnam in 2006, an increase of 3.7% from 2005. The country is investing capital into the coastal regions that are already popular for their beaches and boat tours. Hotel staff and tourism guides in these regions speak a good amount of English.
Organisation Survey Ranking
Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom 142 out of 157
The Economist Worldwide Quality-of-life Index, 2005 61 out of 111
Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index 155 out of 167
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 111 out of 163
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 109 out of 177
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 77 out of 125
History Timeline ( Origins | Early Independence | Chinese domination | Dynastic Period | Colonization | Franco Vietnamese War | Vietnam War | Reform)
Politics Constitution | Political parties (Communist Party of Vietnam) | Elections
Government Executive branch ( President | Prime Minister) | Legislative branch ( National Assembly) | Judicial branch ( Supreme People’s Court | Provincial Municipal Court | Local Court | Military Court) | Law enforcement (People's Police of Vietnam) | Foreign relations | Vietnam People's Army ( Ground Forces | Navy | Air Force | Coast Guard)
Economy Doi Moi | Companies | VND
Transportation Airlines (Vietnam Airlines | Pacific Airlines) | Airports (Tan Son Nhat International Airport | Noi Bai International Airport | Da Nang International Airport) | Vietnam Railways
Geography Northwest | Northeast | Red River Delta | North Central Coast | South Central Coast | Central Highlands | Southeast | Mekong River Delta
Society Demographics | Ethnic groups | Religion | Culture | Media | Education | Holidays
Arts Music | Cinema | Cuisine | Martial Arts | Literature
Other Communications | Flag | Coat of arms | Provinces | Human rights
References and bibliography
1. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The State of The World's Refugees 2000 - Chapter 4: Flight from Indochina. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.: Three million fled Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos combined; close to a million Vietnamese were helped by the UNHCR.
2. ^ Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Boat people: A Refugee Crisis. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
* Herring, George C. America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975 (4th ed 2001), most widely used short history.
* Jahn GC. 2006. The Dream is not yet over. In: P. Fredenburg P, Hill B, editors. Sharing rice for peace and prosperity in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Victoria,(Australia): Sid Harta Publishers. p 237-240
* Karrnow, Stanley. Vietnam: A History. Penguin (Non-Classics); 2nd edition (June 1, 1997). ISBN 0-14-026547-3
* McMahon, Robert J. Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays (1995) textbook
* Tucker, Spencer. ed. Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War (1998) 3 vol. reference set; also one-volume abridgment (2001)
* Portal of the Government of Vietnam
* Communist Party of Vietnam
* National Assembly: the Vietnamese legislative body
* General Statistics Office
* Ministry of Foreign Affairs
* Voice of Vietnam: State radio broadcaster
* Vietnam Television: State television broadcaster
* Vietnam News Agency: Official state news agency
* Nhan Dan (The People): Official Communist Party newspaper
* Quan ﾙi Nhan Dan: Newspaper of the People's Army
* Vietnam Net: Largest Vietnamese portal, run by the government-owned Vietnam Post and Telecommunication Corporation
* Ha Nﾙi Mﾛi (New Hanoi): run by the Hanoi Communist Party (Vietnamese)
* Sai Gon Gi｣i Phong (Liberated Saigon): run by the Ho Chi Minh City Communist Party
While all media in Vietnam must be sponsored by a Communist Party organization and be registered with the government, the following media sources have less government control than others.
* VnExpress: Popular online newspaper (Vietnamese)
* Tuﾕi Trｻ (Youth): Daily newspaper with highest circulation, affiliated with the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Organization of Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese)
* Thanh Nien (Youth): Major daily newspaper, affiliated with the Vietnam National Youth Federation
* Lao ﾙng (Labour): Major daily newspaper, affiliated with the Vietnam General Confederation of Labour (the sole labour union in Vietnam) (Vietnamese)
* Tiﾁn Phong (Vanguard): Major daily newspaper, affiliated with the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth organization (Vietnamese)
* Vietnam Economic Times - for foreign investors
* VietNam Map
* BBC - Country profile: Vietnam
* CIA World Factbook - Vietnam
* Encyclopaedia Britannica - Vietnam
* Open Directory Project - Vietnam directory category
* US State Department - Vietnam includes Background Notes, Country Study and major reports
* US Library of Congress - Country Study: Vietnam
* Information about Vietnam: from the Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affair
* Le Viet Nam, aujourd'hui: News concerning Vietnam (English & French)
* Business Anti-Corruption Portal Vietnam Country Profile
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Subdivisons of Vietnam[hide][hide]
Northwest ・ Northeast ・ Red River Delta ・ North Central Coast ・ South Central Coast ・ Central Highlands ・ Southeast ・ Mekong River Delta
Cｧn Th｡ ・ a Nｵng ・ H｣i Phong ・ Ha Nﾙi ・ Hﾓ Chi Minh City
An Giang ・ Bｯc Giang ・ Bｯc C｡n ・ B｡c Lieu ・ Bｯc Ninh ・ Ba Rﾋa-Ving Tau ・ Bｿn Tre ・ Binh ﾋnh ・ Binh Dｰ｡ng ・ Binh Phｰﾛc ・ Binh Thuｭn ・ Ca Mau ・ Cao Bｱng ・ ｯk Lｯk ・ ｯk Nong ・ iﾇn Bien ・ ﾓng Nai ・ ﾓng Thap ・ Gia Lai ・ Ha Giang ・ H｣i Dｰ｡ng ・ Ha Nam ・ Ha Tay ・ Ha T)nh ・ Hoa Binh ・ Hｭu Giang ・ Hｰng Yen ・ Khanh Hoa ・ Kien Giang ・ Kon Tum ・ Lai Chau ・ Lam ﾓng ・ L｡ng S｡n ・ Lao Cai ・ Long An ・ Nam ﾋnh ・ Nghﾇ An ・ Ninh Binh ・ Ninh Thuｭn ・ Phu Thﾍ ・ Phu Yen ・ Qu｣ng Binh ・ Qu｣ng Nam ・ Qu｣ng Ngai ・ Qu｣ng Ninh ・ Qu｣ng Trﾋ ・ Soc Trng ・ S｡n La ・ Tay Ninh ・ Thai Binh ・ Thai Nguyen ・ Thanh Hoa ・ Th・a Thien-Huｿ ・ Tiﾁn Giang ・ Tra Vinh ・ Tuyen Quang ・ V)nh Long ・ V)nh Phuc ・ Yen Bai
Flag of Vietnam
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Countries and territories of Southeast Asia[hide][hide]
Flag of Brunei Brunei
Flag of Cambodia Cambodia
Flag of East Timor East Timor
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia
Flag of Laos Laos
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia
Flag of Myanmar Myanmar
Flag of Philippines Philippines
Flag of Singapore Singapore
Flag of Thailand Thailand
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam Non-sovereign territories
Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India)
Flag of Christmas Island Christmas Island (Australia)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia)
Hainan Island (PRC)
Orchid Island (ROC)
Ashmore and Cartier Islands (Australia, Indonesia) ・ Islands in the Naf River (Bangladesh, Myanmar) ・ Macclesfield Islands (PRC, ROC, Vietnam) ・ Paracel Islands (PRC, ROC, Vietnam) ・ Pratas Islands (PRC, ROC) ・ Scarborough Shoal (Philippines, PRC, ROC) ・ Spratly Islands (Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines, PRC, ROC, Vietnam)
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Countries of Asia[hide][hide]
Afghanistan ・ Armenia ・ Azerbaijan1 ・ Bahrain ・ Bangladesh ・ Bhutan ・ Brunei ・ Cambodia ・ China, People's Republic of ・ China, Republic of (Taiwan)2 ・ Cyprus ・ Egypt3 ・ Georgia1 ・ India ・ Indonesia4 ・ Iran ・ Iraq ・ Israel ・ Japan ・ Jordan ・ Kazakhstan1 ・ Korea, Democratic People's Republic of ・ Korea, Republic of ・ Kuwait ・ Kyrgyzstan ・ Laos ・ Lebanon ・ Malaysia ・ Maldives ・ Mongolia ・ Myanmar ・ Nepal ・ Oman ・ Pakistan ・ Philippines ・ Qatar ・ Russia1 ・ Saudi Arabia ・ Singapore ・ Sri Lanka ・ Syria ・ Tajikistan ・ Thailand ・ Timor-Leste (East Timor)4 ・ Turkey1 ・ Turkmenistan ・ United Arab Emirates ・ Uzbekistan ・ Vietnam ・ Yemen3
For dependent and other territories, see Dependent territory and List of unrecognized countries.
1 Partly or significantly in Europe. 2 The Republic of China (Taiwan) is not officially recognized by the United Nations; see Political status of Taiwan.
3 Partly or significantly in Africa. 4 Partly or wholly reckoned in Oceania.
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Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)[hide][hide]
Flag of Brunei Brunei
Flag of Myanmar Myanmar Flag of Cambodia Cambodia
Flag of Philippines Philippines Flag of Indonesia Indonesia
Flag of Singapore Singapore Flag of Laos Laos
Flag of Thailand Thailand Flag of Malaysia Malaysia
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam
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Member states of the East Asia Summit (EAS)[hide][hide]
Flag of Australia Australia
Flag of Brunei Brunei Darussalam
Flag of Cambodia Cambodia
Flag of India India Flag of Indonesia Indonesia
Flag of Japan Japan
Flag of Laos Laos
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia Flag of Myanmar Myanmar
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand
Flag of People's Republic of China China (PRC)
Flag of Philippines Philippines Flag of Singapore Singapore
Flag of South Korea Republic of Korea
Flag of Thailand Thailand
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam
Potential future members Flag of East Timor Timor-Leste Flag of Russia Russia
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Member states and observers of La Francophonie
Flag of La Francophonie
Albania ・ Andorra ・ Belgium ・ Benin ・ Bulgaria ・ Burkina Faso ・ Burundi ・ Cambodia ・ Cameroon ・ Canada (New Brunswick " Quebec) ・ Cape Verde ・ Central African Republic ・ Chad ・ Cyprus1 ・ Comoros ・ Democratic Republic of the Congo ・ Republic of the Congo ・ Cote d'Ivoire ・ Djibouti ・ Dominica ・ Egypt ・ Equatorial Guinea ・ Republic of Macedonia2 ・ France (including French Guiana " Martinique " St. Pierre and Miquelon) ・ Gabon ・ Ghana1 ・ Greece ・ Guadeloupe ・ Guinea ・ Guinea-Bissau ・ Haiti ・ Laos ・ Luxembourg ・ Lebanon ・ Madagascar ・ Mali ・ Mauritania ・ Mauritius ・ Moldova ・ Monaco ・ Morocco ・ Niger ・ Romania ・ Rwanda ・ St. Lucia ・ Sao Tome and Principe ・ Senegal ・ Seychelles ・ Switzerland ・ Togo ・ Tunisia ・ Vanuatu ・ Vietnam
Observers Armenia ・ Austria ・ Croatia ・ Czech Republic ・ Georgia ・ Hungary ・ Lithuania ・ Mozambique ・ Poland ・ Serbia ・ Slovakia ・ Slovenia ・ Ukraine
1 Associate member. 2 Also known as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
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Flag of People's Republic of China China (PRC) Flag of Cuba Cuba Flag of North Korea North Korea Flag of Laos Laos Flag of Vietnam Vietnam
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Flag of India India " Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh
Flag of People's Republic of China China " Flag of Cambodia Cambodia " Flag of India India " Flag of Laos Laos " Flag of Malaysia Malaysia " Flag of Myanmar Myanmar " Flag of Thailand Thailand " Flag of Vietnam Vietnam
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Sino-Tibetan-speaking nations and areas of special sovereignty[hide][hide]
Flag of Bhutan Bhutan " Flag of Cambodia Cambodia " Flag of People's
Republic of China China " Flag of Hong Kong Hong Kong " Flag
of India India " Flag of Indonesia Indonesia " Flag of Macau
Macau " Flag of Malaysia Malaysia " Flag of Myanmar Myanmar "
Flag of Nepal Nepal " Flag of Pakistan Pakistan " Flag of Philippines
Philippines " Flag of Singapore Singapore " Flag of Republic
of China Taiwan " Flag of Thailand Thailand " Flag of Vietnam
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Members of the World Trade Organization (WTO)[hide][hide]
Albania ・ Angola ・ Antigua and Barbuda ・ Argentina ・ Armenia ・ Australia ・ Bahrain ・ Bangladesh ・ Barbados ・ Belize ・ Benin ・ Bolivia ・ Botswana ・ Brazil ・ Brunei (Brunei Darussalam) ・ Burkina Faso ・ Burundi ・ Cambodia ・ Cameroon ・ Canada ・ Central African Republic ・ Chad ・ Chile ・ China (PRC) ・ Colombia ・ Democratic Republic of the Congo ・ Republic of the Congo ・ Costa Rica ・ Cote d'Ivoire ・ Croatia ・ Cuba ・ Djibouti ・ Dominica ・ Dominican Republic ・ Ecuador ・ Egypt ・ El Salvador ・ European Union1 ・ Fiji ・ Republic of Macedonia2 ・ Gabon ・ The Gambia ・ Georgia ・ Ghana ・ Grenada ・ Guatemala ・ Guinea ・ Guinea-Bissau ・ Guyana ・ Haiti ・ Honduras ・ Hong Kong3 ・ Iceland ・ India ・ Indonesia ・ Israel ・ Jamaica ・ Japan ・ Jordan ・ Kenya ・ South Korea ・ Kuwait ・ Kyrgyzstan ・ Lesotho ・ Liechtenstein ・ Macau3 ・ Madagascar ・ Malawi ・ Malaysia ・ Maldives ・ Mali ・ Mauritania ・ Mauritius ・ Mexico ・ Moldova ・ Mongolia ・ Morocco ・ Mozambique ・ Myanmar ・ Namibia ・ Nepal ・ New Zealand ・ Nicaragua ・ Niger ・ Nigeria ・ Norway ・ Oman ・ Pakistan ・ Panama ・ Papua New Guinea ・ Paraguay ・ Peru ・ Philippines ・ Qatar ・ Rwanda ・ St. Kitts and Nevis ・ St. Lucia ・ St. Vincent and the Grenadines ・ Saudi Arabia ・ Senegal ・ Sierra Leone ・ Singapore ・ Solomon Islands ・ South Africa ・ Sri Lanka ・ Suriname ・ Swaziland ・ Switzerland ・ Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu ・ Tanzania ・ Thailand ・ Togo ・ Trinidad and Tobago ・ Tunisia ・ Turkey ・ Uganda ・ United Arab Emirates ・ United States ・ Uruguay ・ Venezuela ・ Vietnam ・ Zambia ・ Zimbabwe
1 All twenty-seven member states of the European Union are also members of the WTO in their own right:
Austria " Belgium " Bulgaria " Cyprus " Czech Republic " Denmark " Estonia " Finland " France " Germany " Greece " Hungary " Ireland " Italy " Latvia " Lithuania " Luxembourg " Malta " Netherlands and Netherlands Antilles " Poland " Portugal " Romania " Slovakia " Slovenia " Spain " Sweden " United Kingdom
2 Also known as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM).
3 Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.
2007 Red Cross Hoang Hoa. all rights reserved.
2007 Hội Chữ Thập Đỏ huyện Hoằng Hóa,Thanh Hóa Việt Nam. all rights reserved.